Theoretically, no. The computer viruses are software code designed to spread across computers stored data and damage files, steal information or execute any other malicious payload.
Now, although viruses in their digital form cannot take actions at a physical level, there is some talk about the possibility of running some complex virus schemes that work hardware parts to exhaustion, causing them to be physically damaged for good. The theory says that this should be impossible when the computer parts are at impeccable levels, with proper cooling and power source. But of course, reality tends to laugh at theories, and History records a prime example of what can be achieved when there is the will as well as the financial and technical means to develop highly targeted, effective and destructive malware: Stuxnet.